如何在Magento 2中创建安装程序,升级,卸载脚本

在本文中,我们将了解如何在Magento 2中安装和升级模块的sql脚本。安装或升级模块时,可能需要更改数据库结构或为当前表添加一些新数据。为此,Magento 2为您提供了一些可以完成所有课程的课程。

表中的内容

  • InstallSchema / InstallData
  • UpgradeSchema / UpgradeData
  • 升级架构
  • 升级数据
  • 定期
  • 卸载

安装,升级,卸载SQL脚本概述

  • InstallSchema - 安装模块时将运行此类以设置数据库结构
  • InstallData - 安装模块时将运行此类以初始化数据库表的数据。
  • UpgradeSchema - 在升级模块以设置数据库结构时,将运行此类
  • UpgradeData - 当升级模块以从表中添加/删除数据时,将运行此类。
  • 定期
  • 卸载

所有课程都将位于app/code/Vendor/Module/Setup文件夹中。运行以下命令行时将运行模块安装/升级脚本:

php bin/magento setup:upgrade

在本文中,我们将使用示例模块Mageplaza_HelloWorld来创建一些演示表和数据。

安装脚本:InstallSchema和InstallData

InstallSchema和InstallData类将在模块安装期间运行。

magento 2中的InstallSchema 安装脚本将用于更改数据库架构(创建或更改数据库表)。这是创建mageplaza_helloworld_post表的安装脚本:

文件: app/code/Mageplaza/HelloWorld/Setup/InstallSchema.php

<?php

namespace Mageplaza\HelloWorld\Setup;

class InstallSchema implements \Magento\Framework\Setup\InstallSchemaInterface
{

	public function install(\Magento\Framework\Setup\SchemaSetupInterface $setup, \Magento\Framework\Setup\ModuleContextInterface $context)
	{
		$installer = $setup;
		$installer->startSetup();
		if (!$installer->tableExists('mageplaza_helloworld_post')) {
			$table = $installer->getConnection()->newTable(
				$installer->getTable('mageplaza_helloworld_post')
			)
				->addColumn(
					'post_id',
					\Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TYPE_INTEGER,
					null,
					[
						'identity' => true,
						'nullable' => false,
						'primary'  => true,
						'unsigned' => true,
					],
					'Post ID'
				)
				->addColumn(
					'name',
					\Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TYPE_TEXT,
					255,
					['nullable => false'],
					'Post Name'
				)
				->addColumn(
					'url_key',
					\Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TYPE_TEXT,
					255,
					[],
					'Post URL Key'
				)
				->addColumn(
					'post_content',
					\Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TYPE_TEXT,
					'64k',
					[],
					'Post Post Content'
				)
				->addColumn(
					'tags',
					\Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TYPE_TEXT,
					255,
					[],
					'Post Tags'
				)
				->addColumn(
					'status',
					\Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TYPE_INTEGER,
					1,
					[],
					'Post Status'
				)
				->addColumn(
					'featured_image',
					\Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TYPE_TEXT,
					255,
					[],
					'Post Featured Image'
				)
				->addColumn(
					'created_at',
					\Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TYPE_TIMESTAMP,
					null,
					['nullable' => false, 'default' => \Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TIMESTAMP_INIT],
					'Created At'
				)->addColumn(
					'updated_at',
					\Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TYPE_TIMESTAMP,
					null,
					['nullable' => false, 'default' => \Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TIMESTAMP_INIT_UPDATE],
					'Updated At')
				->setComment('Post Table');
			$installer->getConnection()->createTable($table);

			$installer->getConnection()->addIndex(
				$installer->getTable('mageplaza_helloworld_post'),
				$setup->getIdxName(
					$installer->getTable('mageplaza_helloworld_post'),
					['name', 'url_key', 'post_content', 'tags', 'featured_image'],
					\Magento\Framework\DB\Adapter\AdapterInterface::INDEX_TYPE_FULLTEXT
				),
				['name', 'url_key', 'post_content', 'tags', 'featured_image'],
				\Magento\Framework\DB\Adapter\AdapterInterface::INDEX_TYPE_FULLTEXT
			);
		}
		$installer->endSetup();
	}
}

查看此文件,我们将看到:

课程必须延伸 \Magento\Framework\Setup\InstallSchemaInterface

该类必须具有install()2个参数SchemaSetupInterface和方法ModuleContextInterface。该SchemaSetupInterface是设置对象,它提供了许多功能与数据库服务器进行交互。在ModuleContextInterface只有1个方法getVersion()将返回你的模块的当前版本。

在上面的示例中,我们创建了一个以mageplaza_helloworld_postcolumns:命名的表post_id, name, post_content, created_at ...

InstallData将在InstallSchema类之后运行,以将数据添加到数据库表中。

文件: app/code/Mageplaza/HelloWorld/Setup/InstallData.php

<?php

namespace Mageplaza\HelloWorld\Setup;

use Magento\Framework\Setup\InstallDataInterface;
use Magento\Framework\Setup\ModuleContextInterface;
use Magento\Framework\Setup\ModuleDataSetupInterface;

class InstallData implements InstallDataInterface
{
	protected $_postFactory;

	public function __construct(\Mageplaza\HelloWorld\Model\PostFactory $postFactory)
	{
		$this->_postFactory = $postFactory;
	}

	public function install(ModuleDataSetupInterface $setup, ModuleContextInterface $context)
	{
		$data = [
			'name'         => "How to Create SQL Setup Script in Magento 2",
			'post_content' => "In this article, we will find out how to install and upgrade sql script for module in Magento 2. When you install or upgrade a module, you may need to change the database structure or add some new data for current table. To do this, Magento 2 provide you some classes which you can do all of them.",
			'url_key'      => '/magento-2-module-development/magento-2-how-to-create-sql-setup-script.html',
			'tags'         => 'magento 2,mageplaza helloworld',
			'status'       => 1
		];
		$post = $this->_postFactory->create();
		$post->addData($data)->save();
	}
}

这个类将具有相同的概念InstallSchema

升级脚本:UpgradeSchema和UpgradeData

安装或升级模块时,这两个文件都将运行。这些类与Install类不同,因为它们将在每次模块升级时运行。因此,我们将需要检查的属性setup_versionmodule.xml,在app/code/Mageplaza/HelloWorld/etc/和每个版本分开脚本。

在这个例子中,我们将attrubute更改setup_version1.2.0

文件: app/code/Mageplaza/HelloWorld/etc/module.xml

内容如下:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:Module/etc/module.xsd">
    <module name="Mageplaza_HelloWorld" setup_version="1.2.0">
    </module>
</config>

升级架构:

文件: app/code/Mageplaza/HelloWorld/Setup/UpgradeSchema.php

<?php
namespace Mageplaza\HelloWorld\Setup;

use Magento\Framework\Setup\UpgradeSchemaInterface;
use Magento\Framework\Setup\SchemaSetupInterface;
use Magento\Framework\Setup\ModuleContextInterface;

class UpgradeSchema implements UpgradeSchemaInterface
{
	public function upgrade( SchemaSetupInterface $setup, ModuleContextInterface $context ) {
		$installer = $setup;

		$installer->startSetup();

		if(version_compare($context->getVersion(), '1.2.0', '<')) {
			$installer->getConnection()->addColumn(
				$installer->getTable( 'mageplaza_helloworld_post' ),
				'test',
				[
					'type' => \Magento\Framework\DB\Ddl\Table::TYPE_DECIMAL,
					'nullable' => true,
					'length' => '12,4',
					'comment' => 'test',
					'after' => 'status'
				]
			);
		}



		$installer->endSetup();
	}
}

在这个类中,我们使用upgrade()每次升级模块时运行的方法。我们还必须比较版本以添加每个版本的脚本。

升级数据:

这与UpgradeSchema班级相同

文件: app/code/Mageplaza/HelloWorld/Setup/UpgradeData.php

<?php

namespace Mageplaza\HelloWorld\Setup;

use Magento\Framework\Setup\UpgradeDataInterface;
use Magento\Framework\Setup\ModuleDataSetupInterface;
use Magento\Framework\Setup\ModuleContextInterface;

class UpgradeData implements UpgradeDataInterface
{
	protected $_postFactory;

	public function __construct(\Mageplaza\HelloWorld\Model\PostFactory $postFactory)
	{
		$this->_postFactory = $postFactory;
	}

	public function upgrade(ModuleDataSetupInterface $setup, ModuleContextInterface $context)
	{
		if (version_compare($context->getVersion(), '1.2.0', '<')) {
			$data = [
				'name'         => "Magento 2 Events",
				'post_content' => "This article will talk about Events List in Magento 2. As you know, Magento 2 is using the events driven architecture which will help too much to extend the Magento functionality. We can understand this event as a kind of flag that rises when a specific situation happens. We will use an example module Mageplaza_HelloWorld to exercise this lesson.",
				'url_key'      => '/magento-2-module-development/magento-2-events.html',
				'tags'         => 'magento 2,mageplaza helloworld',
				'status'       => 1
			];
			$post = $this->_postFactory->create();
			$post->addData($data)->save();
		}
	}
}

重复的脚本

循环脚本是一个脚本,每次php bin/magento setup:upgrade运行命令行时都会在模块设置脚本之后运行。

此脚本的定义与InstallSchema类相同,但类的名称不同。您可以在此查看此类的示例vendor/magento/module-indexer/Setup/Recurring.php

卸载脚本

Magento 2为我们提供了卸载模块功能,它将删除所有尚未安装的表,数据。这是这个类的例子:

文件: app/code/Mageplaza/HelloWorld/Setup/Uninstall.php

<?php
namespace Mageplaza\HelloWorld\Setup;

use Magento\Framework\Setup\UninstallInterface;
use Magento\Framework\Setup\SchemaSetupInterface;
use Magento\Framework\Setup\ModuleContextInterface;

class Uninstall implements UninstallInterface
{
	public function uninstall(SchemaSetupInterface $setup, ModuleContextInterface $context)
	{
		$installer = $setup;
		$installer->startSetup();

		$installer->getConnection()->dropTable($installer->getTable('mageplaza_helloworld_post'));

		$installer->endSetup();
	}
}

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